The Society brings together researchers conducting neurobiological, neuropsychological, neuroinformatics and neuropsychopharmacological studies, is involved in dissemination of knowledge on the nervous system and progress made in nervous system research. It is also engaged in popularization of neuroscience, organization of training courses, publication of related materials and represents Polish community of neuroscientists both in Poland and abroad.

The main forms of PNS activity include organizing:

PNS initiates and supports organization of numerous scientific meetings, symposia, conferences and sessions, focused on different subjects related to neurobiology. Training sessions organized till now concentrated on:

molecular bases of addiction, mechanisms of learning and memory, plasticity of the nervous system, cytokines and the brain, sensory and motor systems, neurogenesis and development, neuroimmunology of the brain, neurodegeneration, pain, neuropsychology, cortical integrative mechanisms, neuroinformatics.

Popularizing activity of PNS involves the organization of annual open events during Brain Awareness Weeks: lectures, discussions, workshops and brain knowledge contests for high school and university students.